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Picture of Herbert Clark Hoover
[Library of Congress]


31st President (1929-1933)

Biographical Data
Religious Views
References, Links, & Further Reading

Education: Stanford University

Occupation: engineer, humanitarian, writer

Political Affiliation: Republican

Religious Affiliation: Society of Friends (Quaker)

Summary of Religious Views:

Views on Religion & Politics:


"For centuries, the human race believed that divine inspiration rested in a few. The result was blind faith in religious hierarchies, the Divine Right of Kings. The world has been disillusioned of this belief that divinity rests in any special group or class whether it be through a creed, a tyranny of kinds or of proletariat. Our individualism insists upon the divine in each human being. It rests upon the divine in each human being. It rests upon the firm faith that the divine spark can be awakened in every heart. It was the refusal to compromise these things that led to the migration of those religious groups who so largely composed our forefathers. Our diversified religious faiths are the apotheosis of spiritual individualism." -- American Individualism -- 1922

"I come of Quaker stock. My ancestors were persecuted for their beliefs. Here they sought and found religious freedom. By blood and conviction I stand for religious tolerance both in act and in spirit." -- New Day, 1928

"I cannot conceive of a wholesome social order or a sound economic system that does not have its roots in religious faith. No blind materialism can for long engage the loyalties of mankind. Economic aspiration, though it strongly marks the American system, is not an end in itself, but is only one of many instruments to accomplish the profound purposes of the American people, which are largely religious in origin. This country is supremely dedicated, not to the pursuit of material riches, but to pursuit of a richer life for the individual." -- Address on the 150th Anniversary of the Battle of Kings Mountain, 7 October 1930

"I send cordial greetings to the Americans of Lutheran faith who are celebrating on October 31 the anniversary of the Protestant Reformation and the 400th anniversary of the reading of the Augsburg Confession, from which date so many of the changes in point of view from older conceptions both of religion and government. The effects of these historical events are reflected in our National life and institutions, in religion through the predominant numbers of adherents to Protestant faiths and in Government through the principle of separation of church and state. It is fitting that we should commemorate the persons and events from which mighty forces have sprung." --Message to American Lutherans on the Anniversary of the Protestant Reformation, 9 October 1930

"One of the proudest traditions of our history is the early date at which our Nation committed itself unreservedly and permanently to the principle of freedom of conscience, and the very early action of Maryland in this respect was one of the important influences leading to the adoption of this principle. The strong support of the foremost Revolutionary patriots, including Washington, Jefferson, Franklin and many others, was decisive in fixing this principle in our Constitution as the permanent and beneficent policy of our country." -- Message to the Calvert Associates, 8 April 1932

"The migration of our forefathers to America was in refuge from the continued regimentation of men and men's minds still frozen by classes, by feudalism, by the churches, and by governments. Liberty was already implicit in their religious beliefs and their spiritual aspirations. Their purpose was to establish it in government." -- The Challenge to Liberty, 1934, p18

References, Links, & Further Reading: Books, Articles, Links


Works by Herbert Hoover

Addresses upon the American Road, 7 vols., Stanford Univ. Press, 1955
American Individualism, Doubleday, Page, 1922
The Challenge to Liberty, Scribner's, 1934
Memoirs, 3 vols., Macmillan, 1951-1952
The New Day: Campaign Speeches Of Herbert Hoover 1928, Stanford Univ. Press, 1928
The Ordeal Of Woodrow Wilson, 1958
Principles of Mining, McGraw-Hill, 1909; reprint, Principles of Mining
ed. by William S. Myers, The State Papers and Other Public Writings of Herbert Hoover, 2 vols., Doubleday, 1934


William J. Barber, From New Era to New Deal: Herbert Hoover, the Economists, and American Economic Policy, 1921-1933 (Historical Perspectives on Modern Economics), 1989
Gary D. Best, Herbert Hoover, the Postpresidential Years, 1933-1964, Vol. 2: 1946-1964, 2 vols., Hoover Inst. Press, 1983
David Burner, Herbert Hoover: A Public Life (Signature) , Knopf, 1979; reprint, Atheneum, 1984
James D. Calder, The Origins and Development of Federal Crime Control Policy: Herbert Hoover's Initiatives, Praeger, 1993
Kendrick A. Clements, Hoover, Conservation, and Consumerism: Engineering the Good Life, Univ. Press of Kansas, 2000
Wilton Eckley, Herbert Hoover (Twayne's United States authors series ; TUSAS 385), Twayne, 1980
Martin L. Fausold, The Presidency of Herbert C. Hoover (American Presidency Series), Univ. of Kansas Press, 1985
ed. by Carol B. Fitzgerald, Herbert C Hoover (Meckler's Bibliographies of the Presidents of the United States 1789-1989), Meckler, 1991
Lawrence E. Gelfand, ed., Herbert Hoover: The Great War and Its Aftermath, 1914-1923, 1979
Mark Hatfield,ed. Herbert Hoover Reassessed: Essays Commemorating the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Inauguration of Our Thirty-First President, 2002
Ellis Hawley, Herbert Hoover As Secretary of Commerce: Studies in New Era Thought and Practice (Herbert Hoover Centennial Seminars ; 2), Univ. of Iowa Press, 1981
Louis W. Liebovich, Bylines in Despair: Herbert Hoover, the Great Depression, and the U.S. News Media, Praeger, 1994
Donald Lisio, The President and Protest: Hoover, MacArthur, and the Bonus Riot, 2d ed., Fordham Univ. Press, 1994
George H. Nash, The Life of Herbert Hoover, 3 vols., Norton, 1983, 1988, 1996
Ed. by Lee Nash, Understanding Herbert Hoover: Ten Perspectives (Hoover Institution Press Publication), Hoover Inst. Press, 1988
Richard N. Smith, Uncommon Man: The Triumph of Herbert Hoover, High Plains Pub., 1990
Joan Hoff Wilson, Herbert Hoover: Forgotten Progressive , Harper & Row, 1975



Works by Herbert Clark Hoover

Herbert Clark Hoover: Selected Works (Humanities Web)
Document Library (TeachingAmericanHistory.org)
Speeches by Herbert Hoover (Herbert Hoover Presidential Library Association)
Inaugural Address (AMDOCS)
Inaugural Address of Herbert Hoover (Avalon Project -- Yale Law School)
American Individualism (Herbert Hoover Presidential Library Association)
Herbert Hoover -- 1932 campaign speech (Vincent Voice Library -- Michigan State University Libraries)

Biographical Sites

Herbert Clark Hoover [alternate site] (POTUS)
Herbert Hoover (White House)
Herbert Hoover (USA Presidents)
Herbert Hoover (American President)
Life Portrait of Herbert Hoover (C-SPAN)
The Engineer President: Herbert Hoover, Engineer and Former President of USA (Engineers-international)
Hoover Bios (Herbert Hoover Presidential Library Association)
Herbert Hoover Presidential Library-Museum
Herbert Hoover (Engines of Our Ingenuity)
Hoover and Agricola (Engines of Our Ingenuity)
Herbert Hoover (Medical History of the Presidents of the United States)
Herbert Hoover (Baseball Almanac)

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