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Picture of Richard Milhous Nixon
[Nixon Presidential Materials Staff]


37th President (1969-1974), 36th Vice President (1953-1961)

Biographical Data
Religious Views
References, Links, & Further Reading

Education: Whittier College, Duke University Law School

Occupation: Lawyer

Political Affiliation: Republican

Religious Affiliation: Quaker

Summary of Religious Views:

Views on Religion & Politics:


"To me, the greatness of the universe is too much for man to explain. I still believe that God is the creator, the first cause of all that exists. I still believe that He lives today, in some form, directing the destiny of the cosmos." -- "What Can I Believe?" (college essay), 9 October 1933 (quoted in RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon, 1978, p. 16)

"My reticence about public displays of religious faith flows both from the style of my family's religious observances and from a belief that God's will is expressed by men through their actions toward and on behalf of others. In living a Christian life, faith is the first step. Acknowledging your faith is the second. But the most important step is using the energy and creativity faith gives you to make the world a better place." -- In the Arena, 1990, p. 89

"I believe a minister cannot carry out his major mission in life as effectively if he dabbles in politics." -- In the Arena, 1990, p. 90

"In the long term, whether a church is on the right or the left, the more political it becomes, the less appeal it has religiously." -- In the Arena, 1990, p. 91

"I believe children should be allowed to have a moment of silence in schools. But I do not believe an ammendment allowing school prayer belongs in the Constitution. America has become a great nation in large part because we are conceived and nurtured in strong religious faith. But the real test of faith is whether it is strong enough to tolerate other faiths." -- In the Arena, 1990, p. 91

"While the majority should not impose its religious views on the minority, the minority should respect the views of the majority. Reverse bigotry by the minority is just as reprehensible as bigotry by the majority. For instance, to oppose the display of Christian religious symbols in public places at Christmas is both petty and silly." -- In the Arena, 1990, p. 91

"Many of the Europeans who came to the New World were fleeing repressive religious authority, so it is no surprise that the Founders called for a strict separation of church and state. It was not that they were irreligious but rather that memories of a tyrannical church made them see the wisdom of a separate civil authority. Hundreds of years later, many in our intellectual elite mistakenly interpret the Constitution as requiring our society to be totally secular." -- In the Arena, 1990, p. 92

"It is important to observe the separation of church and state mandated by the Constitution. But in framing this provision, its authors could not have imagined a society in which religion did not play a dominant role. We should not use the requirement that religion be kept out of politics as an excuse to try to drive it out of our lives." -- Beyond Peace, 1994, p. 21

"Those who join the religious right may be dispatched to lie down in the entrance of an abortion clinic, while those on the religious left can help you arrange a demonstration against U.S. policy in Latin America. Neither has much to offer the individual who is searching for answers to more fundamental, deeply spiritual questions." -- Beyond Peace, 1994, p. 22

"One of this nation's great strengths is that we are a diverse nation, with many competing convictions and interests. Free and open public debate has made us stronger, not weaker. There are, however, some basic virtues that all Americans of goodwill can share: honesty, fidelity, thrift, hard work, patriotism, diligence, self-discipline, gratitude, and a belief in liberty, religious freedom, and equal opportunity." -- Beyond Peace, 1994, p. 236

"Religious freedom has served from the beginning as the cornerstone of our economic freedom and political liberty." -- Beyond Peace, 1994, p. 237

"The Constitution may require that we not promote religion in our public schools. But that should not mean rejection of religion in our lives." -- Beyond Peace, 1994, p. 238

"The founders did not intend to weaken religion by separating it from civil authority. They believed that the real test of faith was whether it is strong enough to tolerate other faiths. They were right." -- Beyond Peace, 1994, p. 238

"The profound influence of religion on American politics is vital, but it is best when indirect: on the morals, habits, and souls of individual Americans; on the political climate and the principles that should guide policy, rather than on specific policies themselves.
"Government cannot reach into people's hearts. Religion can." -- Beyond Peace, 1994, pp. 238-239

"Those on the right and the left who believe the clergy should play an active role in politics ought to consider the dismal record of the Islamic theocracies . . ." -- Beyond Peace, 1994, p. 239

References, Links, & Further Reading: Books, Articles, Links


Works By Richard M. Nixon

1999: Victory Without War, Pocket Books, 1989
Beyond Peace, Random House, 1994
Four Great Americans: Tributes Delivered by President Richard Nixon, Doubleday, 1973
In the Arena: A Memoir of Victory, Defeat, and Renewal, Simon & Schuster, 1990
Leaders, Warner Books, 1982
No More Vietnams, Arbor House, 1985
Public Papers of the Presidents: Richard Nixon, 6 vols., United States Government Printing Office, 1971-1975
Real Peace, Simon & Schuster, 1990
RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon, Grosset & Dunlap, 1978
Seize the Moment: America's Challenge in a One-Superpower World, Simon & Schuster, 1992
Setting the Course: The First Year, Funk & Wagnalls, 1970
Six Crises, Simon & Schuster, 1990
The Nixon Presidential Press Conferences, E.M. Coleman Enterprises, 1978
The Real War, Simon & Schuster, 1980


Jonathan Aitken, Nixon: A Life, Regnery Publishing, Inc., 1993
Stephen E. Ambrose, Nixon, 3 vols., Simon & Schuster, 1988-1991
Sam Anson, Exile: The Unquiet Oblivion of Richard M. Nixon, Simon and Schuster, 1984
Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, The Final Days, Simon & Schuster, 1976
Conrad Black, Richard M. Nixon: A Life in Full New York, PublicAffairs Books, 2007
Fawn M. Brodie, Richard Nixon: The Shaping of His Character, Harvard Univ. Press, 1983
Dan T. Carter, George Wallace, Richard Nixon, and the Transformation of American Politics (Charles Edmondson Historical Lectures), Baylor Univ. Press, 1992
Monica Crowley, Nixon Off the Record : His Candid Commentary on People and Politics, Random House, 1996
Monica Crowley, Nixon in Winter : His Final Revelations about Diplomacy, Watergate, and Life out of the Arena, Random House, 1998
Robert Dallek, Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power, HarperCollins, 2007
Elizabeth Drew, Richard M. Nixon: The American Presidents Series: The 37th President, 1969-1974, Macmillan, 2007
Irwin F. Gellman, The Contender: Richard Nixon: The Congress Years, 1946- 1952, Free Press, 1999
John R. Greene, The Limits of Power: The Nixon and Ford Administrations (America Since World War II Series), Indiana Univ. Press, 1992
Michael A. Genovese, The Nixon Presidency: Power and Politics in Turbulent Times (Contributions in Political Science), Greenwood Press, 1990
Harry R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House, G.P. Putnam's, 1994
Joan Hoff, Nixon Reconsidered, BasicBooks, 1994
James C. Humes, Nixon's Ten Commandments of Statecraft, Scribner, 1997
Dean J. Kotlowski, Nixon's Civil Rights: Politics, Principle, and Policy, Harvard University Press, 2001
Stanley Kutler, The Wars of Watergate: The Last Crisis of Richard Nixon, Knopf, 1990
Robert S. Litwak, Détente and the Nixon Doctrine: American Foreign Policy and the Pursuit of Stability, 1969-1976 (LSE Monographs in International Studies), Cambridge Univ. Press, 1984
J. Anthony Lucas, Nightmare: Underside Of Nixon Years, Viking, 1976
Margaret MacMillan, Nixon and Mao: The Week That Changed the World, Random House, 2006
Allen J. Matusow, Nixon's Economy : Booms, Busts, Dollars, and Votes, Univ. Press of Kansas, 1998
Bruce Mazlish, In Search of Nixon: A Psychohistorical Inquiry, Basic Books, 1972
Roger Morris, Richard Milhous Nixon, Henry Holt, 1990
Ed. by Bruce Oudes, From the President: Richard Nixon's Secret Files, Harper & Row, 1989
Herbert Parmet, Richard Nixon and His America, Little, Brown, 1990
Raymond Price, With Nixon, Viking Press, 1977
Richard Reeves, President Nixon: Alone in the White House, Simon & Schuster, 2001
William Safire, Before the Fall: An Inside View of the Pre-Watergate White House, Da Capo Press, 1975
Vamik D. Volkan, Norman Itzkowitz, and Andrew M. Dod, Richard Nixon: A Psychobiography, Columbia Univ. Press, 1997
Theodore H. White, The Making of the President 1960, 1961; reprint, Atheneum Pub. 1980
Tom Wicker, One of Us: Richard Nixon and the American Dream, Random House, 1991
Gary Wills, Nixon Agonistes: The Crisis of the Self-Made Man, Cherokee 1990


Hunter S. Thompson, "HE WAS A CROOK," Rolling Stone, 16 June 1994


Works By Richard M. Nixon

Speeches by Richard Nixon (watergate.info)
Richard M. Nixon: Historic Speeches (Presidential Rhetoric)
Document Library (TeachingAmericanHistory.org)
Watergate Tapes (Media Resources Center (MRC) -- UC Berkeley Library)
First Inaugural Address of Richard Milhous Nixon (The Avalon Project -- Yale Law School)
First Inaugural Address (AMDOCS)
Second Inaugural Address of Richard Milhous Nixon (The Avalon Project -- Yale Law School)
Second Inaugural Address (AMDOCS)
Second Inaugural Address (American Rhetoric)
Checkers Speech (American Rhetoric)
1960 Republican National Convention Acceptance Address (American Rhetoric)
Opening Statement, First Presidential Candidate Debate (American Rhetoric)
1962 California GOP Concession Speech (American Rhetoric)
The Great Silent Majority (American Rhetoric)
Cambodian Incursion Address (American Rhetoric)
Address to the Nation on Vietnam (American Rhetoric)
Resignation Address to the Nation (American Rhetoric)
Farewell Remarks to White House Cabinet and Staff (American Rhetoric)
Letter from President Nixon to President Nguyen Van Thieu of the Republic of Vietnam, January 5, 1973 (Colonel NGO THE LINH)
President's Nixon's Report On Vietnam (Colonel NGO THE LINH)
Richard Nixon's Will
Richard M. Nixon -- From his 1971 State of the Union address (Vincent Voice Libary -- Michigan State University)

Biographical Sites

Richard Milhous Nixon [alternate site] (POTUS)
Richard M. Nixon (White House)
NIXON, Richard Milhous, 1913-1994 (Biographical Directory of the US Congress)
Richard Nixon (USA Presidents)
Richard Nixon (American President)
Richard Milhous Nixon (1953-1961) (Vice Presidents of the United States -- U.S. Senate)
Nixon (The American Experience -- PBS)
Life Portrait of Richard M. Nixon (C-SPAN)
Nixon Presidential Library & Museum
Richard M. Nixon (Character Above All -- PBS)
Nixon Years, 1969-1974 (Historical Text Archive)
Nixon's China Game (PBS)
Nixon's 1972 Visit to China (chizeng.com)
Nixon and Sports
When Nixon Met Elvis (National Archives and Records Administration)
Richard Nixon FBI Application (FBI)
Richard Nixon (Medical History of the Presidents of the United States)

Kennedy-Nixon Debates

Debate History: 1960 Debates (Commission on Presidential Debates)


Constitutional Issues: Watergate and the Constitution (National Archives and Records Administration)
Impeachment: Richard Nixon (The History Place)
Watergate (watergate.info)
"I'm Not a Crook." -- The Public Face and Private Political Reality of Richard M. Nixon, by James Q. Jacobs

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