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Picture of Ronald Wilson Reagan
[Ronald Reagan Presidential Library]


40th President (1981-1989)

Biographical Data
Religious Views
References, Links, & Further Reading

Education: Eureka College

Occupation: actor

Political Affiliation: Republican

Religious Affiliation: Disciples of Christ

Summary of Religious Views:

Views on Religion & Politics:


"Prayer has sustained our people in crisis, strengthened us in times of challenge, and guided us through our daily lives since the first settlers came to this continent. Our forbearers came not for gold, but mainly in search of God and the freedom to worship in their own way.
"We've been a free people living under the law, with faith in our Maker and in our future. I've said before that the most sublime picture in American history is of George Washington on his knees in the snow at Valley Forge. That image personifies a people who know that it's not enough to depend on our own courage and goodness; we must also seek help from God, our Father and Preserver." -- Remarks at a White House Ceremony in Observance of National Day of Prayer, 6 May 1982

"Yet today we're told that to protect that first amendment, we must suppress prayer and expel God from our children's classrooms. In one case, a court has ruled against the right of children to say grace in their own school cafeteria before they had lunch. A group of children who sought, on their own initiative and with their parents' approval, to begin the schoolday with a 1-minute prayer meditation have been forbidden to do so. And some students who wanted to join in prayer or religious study on school property, even outside of regular class hours, have been banned from doing so.
"A few people have even objected to prayers being said in the Congress. That's just plain wrong. The Constitution was never meant to prevent people from praying; its declared purpose was to protect their freedom to pray.
"The time has come for this Congress to give a majority of American families what they want for their children -- the firm assurance that children can hold voluntary prayers in their schools just as the Congress, itself, begins each of its daily sessions with an opening prayer.
"With this in mind, last May I proposed to the Congress a measure that declares once and for all that nothing in the Constitution prohibits prayer in public schools or institutions. It also states that no person shall be required by government to participate in prayer who does not want to. So, everyone's rights -- believers and nonbelievers alike -- are protected by our voluntary prayer measure." -- Radio Address to the Nation on Prayer, 18 September 1982

"I know that we share a belief that all people, no matter where they live, have the right to freedom of religion. This is not a right that is any government's to give or to take away. It's our right from birth, because we're all children of God." -- Remarks at the Annual Convention of the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 10 June 1983

"We are a nation under God. I've always believed that this blessed land was set apart in a special way, that some divine plan placed this great continent here between the oceans to be found by people from every corner of the Earth who had a special love for freedom and the courage to uproot themselves, leave homeland and friends, to come to a strange land. And coming here they created something new in all the history of mankind -- a land where man is not beholden to government, government is beholden to man.
"George Washington believed that religion, morality, and brotherhood were the pillars of society. He said you couldn't have morality without religion. And yet today we're told that to protect the first amendment, we must expel God, the source of all knowledge, from our children's classrooms. Well, pardon me, but the first amendment was not written to protect the American people from religion; the first amendment was written to protect the American people from government tyranny.
"Indeed, there is nothing in the Constitution at all about public education and prayer. There is, however, something very pertinent in the act that gave birth to our public school system -- a national act, if you will. It called for public education to see that our children -- and quoting from that act -- ``learned about religion and morality.''
"Well, the time has come for Congress to give a majority of American families what they want for their children -- a constitutional amendment making it unequivocally clear that children can hold voluntary prayer in their schools." -- Remarks at a Spirit of America Rally in Atlanta, Georgia, 26 January 1984

"More and more Americans believe that loving God in their hearts is the ultimate value. Last year, not only were Year of the Bible activities held in every State of the Union, but more than 25 States and 500 cities issued their own Year of the Bible proclamations. One schoolteacher, Mary Gibson, in New York raised $4,000 to buy Bibles for working people in downtown Manhattan.
"Nineteen eighty-three was the year more of us read the Good Book. Can we make a resolution here today? -- that 1984 will be the year we put its great truths into action?
"My experience in this office I hold has only deepened a belief I've held for many years: Within the covers of that single Book are all the answers to all the problems that face us today if we'd only read and believe.
"Let's begin at the beginning. God is the center of our lives; the human family stands at the center of society; and our greatest hope for the future is in the faces of our children. Seven thousand Poles recently came to the christening of Maria Victoria Walesa, daughter of Danuta and Lech Walesa, to express their belief that solidarity of the family remains the foundation of freedom.
"God's most blessed gift to His family is the gift of life. He sent us the Prince of Peace as a babe in a manger. I've said that we must be cautious in claiming God is on our side. I think the real question we must answer is, are we on His side?" -- Remarks at the Annual Convention of the National Religious Broadcasters, 30 January 1984

"I know one thing I'm sure most of us agree on: God, source of all knowledge, should never have been expelled from our children's classrooms. The great majority of our people support voluntary prayer in schools." -- Remarks at the Annual Convention of the National Religious Broadcasters, 30 January 1984

"Let us pledge to conduct ourselves with generosity, tolerance, and openness toward all. We must respect the rights and views of every American, because we're unshakably committed to democratic values. Our Maker would have it no less.
"So, please use your pulpits to denounce racism, anti-Semitism, and all ethnic or religious intolerance as evils, and let us make it clear that our values must not restrict, but liberate the human spirit in thought and in deed." -- Remarks at the Annual Convention of the National Association of Evangelicals in Columbus, Ohio, 6 March 1984

"I believe that faith and religion play a critical role in the political life of our nation -- and always has -- and that the church -- and by that I mean all churches, all denominations -- has had a strong influence on the state. And this has worked to our benefit as a nation.
"Those who created our country -- the Founding Fathers and Mothers -- understood that there is a divine order which transcends the human order. They saw the state, in fact, as a form of moral order and felt that the bedrock of moral order is religion.
" . . .
"I believe that George Washington knew the City of Man cannot survive without the City of God, that the Visible City will perish without the Invisible City.
"Religion played not only a strong role in our national life; it played a positive role. The abolitionist movement was at heart a moral and religious movement; so was the modern civil rights struggle. And throughout this time, the state was tolerant of religious belief, expression, and practice. Society, too, was tolerant.
"But in the 1960's this began to change. We began to make great steps toward secularizing our nation and removing religion from its honored place.
"In 1962 the Supreme Court in the New York prayer case banned the compulsory saying of prayers. In 1963 the Court banned the reading of the Bible in our public schools. From that point on, the courts pushed the meaning of the ruling ever outward, so that now our children are not allowed voluntary prayer. We even had to pass a law -- we passed a special law in the Congress just a few weeks ago to allow student prayer groups the same access to schoolrooms after classes that a young Marxist society, for example, would already enjoy with no opposition.
"The 1962 decision opened the way to a flood of similar suits. Once religion had been made vulnerable, a series of assaults were made in one court after another, on one issue after another. Cases were started to argue against tax-exempt status for churches. Suits were brought to abolish the words 'under God' from the Pledge of Allegiance and to remove 'In God We Trust' from public documents and from our currency.
"Today there are those who are fighting to make sure voluntary prayer is not returned to the classrooms. And the frustrating thing for the great majority of Americans who support and understand the special importance of religion in the national life -- the frustrating thing is that those who are attacking religion claim they are doing it in the name of tolerance, freedom, and openmindedness. Question: Isn't the real truth that they are intolerant of religion? They refuse to tolerate its importance in our lives.
"If all the children of our country studied together all of the many religions in our country, wouldn't they learn greater tolerance of each other's beliefs? If children prayed together, would they not understand what they have in common, and would this not, indeed, bring them closer, and is this not to be desired? So, I submit to you that those who claim to be fighting for tolerance on this issue may not be tolerant at all.
"When John Kennedy was running for President in 1960, he said that his church would not dictate his Presidency any more than he would speak for his church. Just so, and proper. But John Kennedy was speaking in an America in which the role of religion -- and by that I mean the role of all churches -- was secure. Abortion was not a political issue. Prayer was not a political issue. The right of church schools to operate was not a political issue. And it was broadly acknowledged that religious leaders had a right and a duty to speak out on the issues of the day. They held a place of respect, and a politician who spoke to or of them with a lack of respect would not long survive in the political arena.
"It was acknowledged then that religion held a special place, occupied a special territory in the hearts of the citizenry. The climate has changed greatly since then. And since it has, it logically follows that religion needs defenders against those who care only for the interests of the state.
"There are, these days, many questions on which religious leaders are obliged to offer their moral and theological guidance, and such guidance is a good and necessary thing. To know how a church and its members feel on a public issue expands the parameters of debate. It does not narrow the debate; it expands it.
"The truth is, politics and morality are inseparable. And as morality's foundation is religion, religion and politics are necessarily related. We need religion as a guide. We need it because we are imperfect, and our government needs the church, because only those humble enough to admit they're sinners can bring to democracy the tolerance it requires in order to survive.
"A state is nothing more than a reflection of its citizens; the more decent the citizens, the more decent the state. If you practice a religion, whether you're Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, or guided by some other faith, then your private life will be influenced by a sense of moral obligation, and so, too, will your public life. One affects the other. The churches of America do not exist by the grace of the state; the churches of America are not mere citizens of the state. The churches of America exist apart; they have their own vantage point, their own authority. Religion is its own realm; it makes its own claims.
"We establish no religion in this country, nor will we ever. We command no worship. We mandate no belief. But we poison our society when we remove its theological underpinnings. We court corruption when we leave it bereft of belief. All are free to believe or not believe; all are free to practice a faith or not. But those who believe must be free to speak of and act on their belief, to apply moral teaching to public questions.
"I submit to you that the tolerant society is open to and encouraging of all religions. And this does not weaken us; it strengthens us, it makes us strong. You know, if we look back through history to all those great civilizations, those great nations that rose up to even world dominance and then deteriorated, declined, and fell, we find they all had one thing in common. One of the significant forerunners of their fall was their turning away from their God or gods.
"Without God, there is no virtue, because there's no prompting of the conscience. Without God, we're mired in the material, that flat world that tells us only what the senses perceive. Without God, there is a coarsening of the society. And without God, democracy will not and cannot long endure. If we ever forget that we're one nation under God, then we will be a nation gone under." -- Remarks at an Ecumenical Prayer Breakfast in Dallas, Texas, 23 August 1984

"As Americans of different religions find new meaningfulness in their beliefs, we do so together, returning together to the bedrock values of family, hard work, and faith in the same loving and almighty God. And as we welcome this rebirth of faith, we must even more fervently attack ugly intolerance. We have no place for haters in America.
"Well, let me speak plainly: The United States of America is and must remain a nation of openness to people of all beliefs. Our very unity has been strengthened by this pluralism. That's how we began; this is how we must always be. The ideals of our country leave no room whatsoever for intolerance, anti-Semitism, or bigotry of any kind -- none. The unique thing about America is a wall in our Constitution separating church and state. It guarantees there will never be a state religion in this land, but at the same time it makes sure that every single American is free to choose and practice his or her religious beliefs or to choose no religion at all. Their rights shall not be questioned or violated by the state." -- Remarks at the International Convention of B'nai B'rith, 6 September 1984

"We in the United States, above all, must remember that lesson, for we were founded as a nation of openness to people of all beliefs. And so we must remain. Our very unity has been strengthened by our pluralism. We establish no religion in this country, we command no worship, we mandate no belief, nor will we ever. Church and state are, and must remain, separate. All are free to believe or not believe, all are free to practice a faith or not, and those who believe are free, and should be free, to speak of and act on their belief.
"At the same time that our Constitution prohibits state establishment of religion, it protects the free exercise of all religions. And walking this fine line requires government to be strictly neutral. And government should not make it more difficult for Christians, Jews, Muslims, or other believing people to practice their faith. And that's why, when the Connecticut Supreme Court struck down a statute -- and you may not have heard about this; it was a statute protecting employees who observed the Sabbath. Well, our administration is now urging the United States Supreme Court to overturn the Connecticut Court decision. This is what I mean by freedom of religion, and that's what we feel the Constitution intends." -- Remarks to Members of the Congregation of Temple Hillel and Jewish Community Leaders in Valley Stream, New York, 26 October 1984

"I believe that the most essential element of our defense of freedom is our insistence on speaking out for the cause of religious liberty. I would like to see this country rededicate itself wholeheartedly to this cause. I join you in your desire that the Protestant Churches of America, the Catholic Church, and the Jewish organizations remember the members of their flock who are in prison or in jeopardy in other countries. We are our brothers' keepers, all of us. And I hope the message will go forth from this conference: To prisoners of conscience throughout the world, take heart; you have not been forgotten. We, your brothers and sisters in God, have made your cause our cause, and we vow never to relent until you have regained the freedom that is your birthright as a child of God." -- Remarks at a Conference on Religious Liberty, 16 April 1985

References, Links, & Further Reading: Books, Articles, Links


Works by Ronald Wilson Reagan

Ronald Reagan Talks to America, Devin, 1983
An American Life, Threshold Editions, 2011
The Reagan Diaries, Harper Perennial, 2009
The Notes: Ronald Reagan's Private Collection of Stories and Wisdom, Harper, 2011


Martin Anderson, Revolution: The Reagan Legacy, Hoover Inst. Press, 1990
Martin Anderson & Annelise Anderson, Ronald Reagan: Decisions of Greatness, Hoover Inst. Press, 2015
Lawrence I. Barrett, Gambling with History: Reagan in the White House, Penguin, 1984
ed. by Larry Berman, Looking Back on the Reagan Presidency, John Hopkins Univ. Press, 1990
Sidney Blumenthal and Thomas Byrne Edsall, The Reagan Legacy, Pantheon Books, 1988
Adriana Bosch, Reagan: An American Story, TV Books, 2000
H.W. Brands, Reagan: The Life, Doubleday, 2015
Lou Cannon, Reagan, Putnam, 1982
Lou Cannon, President Reagan: The Role of a Lifetime, Simon and Schuster, 1991
James Combs, Reagan Range: The Nostalgic Myth In American Politics, Bowling Green State Univ. Popular Press, 1993
Robert Dallek, Ronald Reagan: The Politics of Symbolism, With a New Preface, Harvard Univ. Press, 1984
Ronnie Dugger, On Reagan, McGraw-Hill, 1983
Ann Edwards, Early Reagan: The Rise to Power, Morrow, 1987
ed. by Fred I. Greenstein, The Reagan Presidency: An Early Assessment, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1983
Peter Hannaford, The Reagans: A Political Portrait , Coward-McCann, 1983
Peter Hannaford, Recollections of Reagan: A portrait of Ronald Reagan, Morrow, 1997
Mark Herstgaard, On Bended Knee: The Press and the Reagan Presidency, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1988
ed. by Joseph Hogan, The Reagan Years: The Record in Presidential Leadership, Manchester Univ. Press, 1990
Haynes Johnson, Sleepwalking Through History: America in the Reagan Years, W.W. Norton, 1991
John Karaagac, Ronald Reagan and Conservative Reformism, Lexington Books, 2000
Paul Kengor, God and Ronald Reagan : A Spiritual Life, Regan Books, 2004
Doyle McManus and Jane Mayer, Landslide: The Unmaking of the President, 1984-88, Houghton, 1988
David Mervin, Ronald Reagan and the American Presidency, Longman, 1990
Dan E. Moldea, Dark Victory: Ronald Reagan, MCA and the Mob, Viking, 1986
Edmund Morris, Dutch: A Memoir of Ronald Reagan, Random House, 1999
Peggy Noonan, What I Saw at the Revolution: A Political Life in the Reagan Era, Random House, 1990
John L. Palmer and Isabel V. Sawhill, The Reagan Record, Ballinger, 1984
Richard Reeves, President Reagan: The Triumph of Imagination, Simon & Schuster, 2005
Michael Paul Rogin, Ronald Reagan, The Movie: And Other Episodes in Political Demonology, Univ. of California Press, 1987
James Rosebush, True Reagan: What Made Ronald Reagan Great and Why It Matters, Center Street, 2016
Michael Schaller, Reckoning with Reagan: America and Its President in the 1980s, Oxford Univ. Press, 1992
Craig Shirley, Last Act: The Final Years and Emerging Legacy of Ronald Reagan, Thomas Nelson, 2015
Mary E. Stuckey, Playing the Game: The Presidential Rhetoric of Ronald Reagan (Praeger Series in Political Communication) , Praeger, 1990
Strobe Talbott, Deadly Gambits: The Reagan Administration and the Stalemate in Nuclear Arms Control, Knopf, 1984
Stephen Vaughn, Ronald Reagan in Hollywood: Movies and Politics (Cambridge Studies in the History of Mass Communication), Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994
John Kenneth White, The New Politics of Old Values, Univ. Press of New England, 1988
Garry Wills, Reagan's America: Innocents at Home , Penguin, 1988


Murray Weidenbaum, "Reaganomics - Its Remarkable Results," Chrisitan Science Monitor, 18 December 1997


Works by Ronald Wilson Reagan

The Public Papers of President Ronald W. Reagan (Ronald Reagan Presidential Library)
Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911-2004) -- selected speeches (Hypertext on American History)
Document Library (TeachingAmericanHistory.org)
Ronald Reagan: Historic Speeches (Presidential Rhetoric)
First Inaugural Address (AMDOCS)
First Inaugural Address of Ronald Reagan (Avalon Project -- Yale Law School)
First Inaugural Address (American Rhetoric)
Second Inaugural Address (AMDOCS)
Second Inaugural Address of Ronald Reagan (Avalon Project -- Yale Law School)
Second Inaugural Address (American Rhetoric)
First State of the Union Address (American Rhetoric)
A Time for Choosing (aka "The Speech") (American Rhetoric)
A Time for Choosing Speech, 1964 (Modern History Sourcebook)
What Ever Happened to Free Enterprise (American Rhetoric)
1980 Republican National Convention Acceptance Address: "Time to Recapture Our Destiny" (American Rhetoric)
Address to British Parliament (American Rhetoric)
Remarks at the Annual Convention of the the National Association of Evangelicals (American Rhetoric)
Address to the National Religious Broadcasters Convention (American Rhetoric)
Remarks on Arrival at Shannon Airport in Shannon, Ireland (American Rhetoric)
Remarks on the 40th Anniversary of D-Day (American Rhetoric)
Remarks at a Dallas Ecumenical Prayer Breakfast (American Rhetoric)
Remarks at the Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp (American Rhetoric)
The Space Shuttle "Challenger" Tragedy Address (American Rhetoric)
Remarks Before Signing the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (American Rhetoric)
Remarks at the Brandenburg Gate (American Rhetoric)
V-Day Ceremony Address at the Vietnam Veterans' Memorial (American Rhetoric)
Farewell Address to the Nation (American Rhetoric)
Address to the Georgia GOP (American Rhetoric)
Remarks on the Occasion of 83rd Birthday Gala (American Rhetoric)
Ronald Reagan -- From his first State of the Union address on January 26, 1982 (Vincent Voice Library -- Michigan State University Libraries)

Biographical Sites

Ronald Wilson Reagan [alternate site] (POTUS)
Ronald Reagan (White House)
A Biography of Ronald Wilson Reagan (Hypertext on American History)
Ronald Reagan (USA Presidents)
Ronald Reagan (American President)
Reagan (The American Experience -- PBS)
Life Portrait of Ronald Reagan (C-SPAN)
Ronald and Nancy Reagan: Biographical Information (Ronald Reagan Presidential Library)
Ronald Reagan Presidential Library
Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation & Library
The Reagan Legacy (Eureka College)
Ronald Reagan (IMDb)
Ronald Reagan (Medical History of the Presidents of the United States)


Reaganomics (Digital History)
Up for Debate: Reaganomics (PBS)
Reaganomics Debate (Youdebate.com)
Reaganomics, by William A. Niskanen
The Myths of Reaganomics, by Murray N. Rothbard
Reagan Versus Clinton
Reaganomics - Its Remarkable Results , by Murray Weidenbaum (Chrisitan Science Monitor),

Iran-Contra Affair

Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters (Federation of American Scientists)
Documents Related to the Iran/Contra Affair (Pink Noise)
The Contras, Cocaine, and Covert Operations (National Security Archive)

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