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Picture of Thomas Jefferson


3rd President (1801-1809), 2nd Vice President (1797-1801), Signer of the Declaration of Independence (Virginia)

Biographical Data
Religious Views
References, Links, & Further Reading

Education: College of William & Mary

Occupation: planter, inventor, lawyer, etc.

Political Affiliation: Democratic-Republican

Religious Affiliation: none

Summary of Religious Views:

Jefferson considered himself a deist; he also considered himself a follower of Jesus. This is not a contradiction, in Jefferson's view, because he believed Jesus to be merely human, not divine, and believed the precepts Jesus taught to be deistical. Much of traditional Christianity, Jefferson claimed, was error and corruption added by later followers of Jesus.

Views on Religion & Politics:

Jefferson was a strong supporter of the separation of church and state, believing that both government and religion would be strengthened by keeping each free of the corrupting influence of the other.

Quotations: [Jefferson's writings relating to religion are so voluminous that I am only able to present a small sampling here]

"Whereas it is represented by many of the Inhabitants of this Country who dissent from the Church of England as by Law established that they consider the Assessments and Contributions which they have been hitherto obliged to make towards the support and Maintenance of the said Church and its Ministry as grievous and oppressive, and an Infringement of their religious Freedom. For Remedy whereof and that equal Liberty as well religious as civil may be universally extended to all the good People of this Common Wealth, Be it Enacted by the General Assembly of the Common Wealth of Virginia and it is hereby Enacted by the Authority of the same that all Dissenters of whatever Denomination from the said Church shall from and after the passing this Act be totally free and exempt from all Levies Taxes and Impositions whatever towards supporting and maintaining the said Church as it now is or may hereafter be established and its Ministers. Provided nevertheless and it is hereby farther Enacted by the Authority aforesaid that the Vestries of the several Parishes where the same hath not been already done shall and may and they are hereby authorized and required at such times as they shall appoint to levy and assess on all Tithables within their respective Parishes as well Dissenters as others all such Salaries and Arrears of Salaries as are or may be due to the Ministers or Incumbents of their Parishes for past Services; moreover to make such Assessments on all Tithables as will enable the said Vestries to comply with their legal parochial Engagements already entered into and lastly to continue such future Provision for the poor in their respective Parishes as they have hitherto by Law been accustomed to make. And be it farther Enacted by the Authority aforesaid that there shall in all time coming be saved and reserved to the Use of the Church by Law established the several Tracts of Glebe Land already purchased; the Churches and Chapels already built for the use of the Parishes; all Books Plate & ornaments belonging or appropriated to the use of the said Church and all arrears of Money or Tobacco arising from former Assessments or otherwise and that there shall moreover be saved and reserved to the use of such Parishes as may have received private Donations for the better support of the said Church and its Ministers the perpetual Benefit and enjoyment of all such Donations.
"And whereas great Varieties of Opinions have arisen touching the Propriety of a general Assessment or whether every religious society should be left to voluntary Contributions for the support and maintenance of the several Ministers and Teachers of the Gospel who are of different Persuasions and Denominations, and this Difference of Sentiments cannot now be well accommodated, so that it is thought most prudent to defer this matter to the Discussion and final Determination of a future assembly when the Opinions of the Country in General may be better known. To the End therefore that so important a Subject may in no Sort be prejudged, Be it Enacted by the Authority aforesaid that nothing in this Act contained shall be construed to affect or influence the said Question of a general Assessment or voluntary Contribution in any respect whatever.
"Provided always that in the mean time the Members of the Established Church shall not in any Parish be subject to the payment of a greater tax for the support of the said Church & its Minister than they would have been, had the Dissenters not been exempted from paying their accustomed proportion, any Law to the contrary notwithstanding.
"And whereas it is represented that in some Counties Lists of Tithables have been omitted to be taken, For remedy whereof be it further enacted, that the Courts of the several Counties, where it may be necessary, shall have Power & they are hereby required so soon as may be convenient to appoint some of their own Members to take the Lists of Tithables throughout their respective Counties." -- Draft of Bill Exempting Dissenters from Contributing to the Support of the Church, 30 November 1776

"Well aware that the opinions and belief of men depend not on their own will, but follow involuntarily the evidence proposed to their minds, that Almighty God hath created the mind free, and manifested his Supreme will that free it shall remain, by making it altogether insusceptible of restraint: That all attempts to influence it by temporal punishments or burthens, or by civil incapacitations, tend only to beget habits of hypocrisy and meanness, and are a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, who being Lord both of body and mind, yet chose not to propagate it by coercions on either, as was in his Almighty power to do, but to extend it by its influence on reason alone: That the impious presumption of legislators and rulers, civil as well as ecclesiastical, who, being themselves but fallible and uninspired men, have assumed dominion over the faith of others, setting up their own opinions and modes of thinking, as the only true and infallible, and as such, endeavouring to impose them on others, hath established and maintained false religions over the greatest part of the world, and through all time: That to compel a man to furnish contributions of money for the propagation of opinions which he disbelieves and abhors, is sinful and tyrannical: That even the forcing him to support this or that teacher of his own religious persuasion, is depriving him of the comfortable liberty of giving his contributions to the particular pastor whose morals he would make his pattern, and whose powers he feels most persuasive to righteousness, and is withdrawing from the Ministry those temporal rewards which, proceeding from an approbation of their personal conduct, are an additional incitement to earnest and unremitting labour for the instruction of mankind: That our civil rights have no dependance on our religious opinions, any more than on our opinions in physicks or geometry: That therefore the proscribing any citizen as unworthy the publick confidence, by laying upon him an incapacity of being called to offices of trust and emolument, unless he profess or renounce this or that religious opinion, is depriving him injuriously of those privileges and advantages to which, in common with his fellow citizens he has a natural right: That it tends also to corrupt the principles of that very religion it is meant to encourage, by bribing with a monopoly of worldly honours and emoluments, those who will externally profess and conform to it: That though indeed these are criminal who do not withstand such temptation, yet neither are those innocent who lay the bait in their way : That the opinions of men are not the object of civil government, nor under its jurisdiction: That to suffer the civil Magistrate to intrude his powers into the field of opinion, and to restrain the profession or propagation of principles on supposition of their ill tendency, is a dangerous fallacy, which at once destroys all religious liberty; because he being of course Judge of that tendency will make his own opinions the rule of judgment, and approve or condemn the sentiments of others only as they shall square with, or differ from his own: That it is time enough for the rightful purposes of civil government for its officers to interfere when principles break out into overt acts against peace and good order: And finally, that truth is great and will prevail if left to herself; that she is the proper and sufficient antagonist to errour, and has nothing to fear from the conflict, unless by human interposition, disarmed of her natural weapons, free argument and debate; errours ceasing to be dangerous when it is permitted freely to contract them.
"We the General Assembly of Virginia do enact, that no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any relig[i]ous Worship place or Ministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained, molested, or burthened in his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief, but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall in no wise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities.
"And though we know that this Assembly, elected by the people for the ordinary purposes of legislation only, have no power to restrain the acts of succeeding Assemblies, constituted with powers equal to our own, and that therefore to declare this act irrevocable would be of no effect in law; yet we are free to declare, and do declare, that the rights hereby asserted are of the natural rights of mankind, and that if any act shall be hereafter passed to repeal the present, or to narrow its operation, such act will be an infringement of natural right." -- A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, 12 June 1779

"The error seems not sufficiently eradicated, that the operations of the mind, as well as the acts of the body, are subject to the coercion of the laws. But our rulers can have authority over such natural rights only as we have submitted to them. The rights of conscience we never submitted, we could not submit. We are answerable for them to our God. The legitimate powers of government extend to such acts only as are injurious to others. But it does me no injury for my neighbour to say there are twenty gods, or no god. It neither picks my pocket nor breaks my leg. If it be said, his testimony in a court of justice cannot be relied on, reject it then, and be the stigma on him. Constraint may make him worse by making him a hypocrite, but it will never make him a truer man. It may fix him obstinately in his errors, but will not cure them. Reason and free enquiry are the only effectual agents against error. Give a loose to them, they will support the true religion, by bringing every false one to their tribunal, to the test of their investigation. They are the natural enemies of error, and of error only. Had not the Roman government permitted free enquiry, Christianity could never have been introduced. Had not free enquiry been indulged, at the aera of the reformation, the corruptions of Christianity could not have been purged away. If it be restrained now, the present corruptions will be protected, and new ones encouraged." -- Notes on the State of Virginia, 1784

"Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between man and his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legislative powers of government reach actions only, and not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should "make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof," thus building a wall of separation between Church and State. Adhering to this expression of the supreme will of the nation in behalf of the rights of conscience, I shall see with sincere satisfaction the progress of those sentiments which tend to restore to man all his natural rights, convinced he has no natural right in opposition to his social duties." -- letter to the Danbury Baptist Association, 1 January 1802

"To the corruptions of Christianity I am indeed opposed; but not to the genuine precepts of Jesus himself. I am a Christian, in the only sense he wished anyone to be; sincerely attached to his doctrines, in preference to all others; ascribing to himself every human excellence; & believing he never claimed any other." -- letter to Benjamin Rush, 21 April 1803

"In matters of religion I have considered that its free exercise is placed by the Constitution independent of the powers of the General Government. I have therefore undertaken on no occasion to prescribe the religious exercises suited to it, but have left them, as the Constitution found them, under the direction and discipline of the church or state authorities acknowledged by the several religious societies." -- Second Inaugural Address, 4 March 1805

"I consider the government of the US. as interdicted by the Constitution from intermeddling with religious institutions, their doctrines, discipline, or exercises. This results not only from the provision that no law shall be made respecting the establishment, or free exercise, of religion, but from that also which reserves to the states the powers not delegated to the U. S. Certainly no power to prescribe any religious exercise, or to assume authority in religious discipline, has been delegated to the general government. It must then rest with the states, as far as it can be in any human authority. But it is only proposed that I should recommend, not prescribe a day of fasting & prayer. That is, that I should indirectly assume to the U. S. an authority over religious exercises which the Constitution has directly precluded them from. It must be meant too that this recommendation is to carry some authority, and to be sanctioned by some penalty on those who disregard it; not indeed of fine and imprisonment, but of some degree of proscription perhaps in public opinion. And does the change in the nature of the penalty make the recommendation the less a law of conduct for those to whom it is directed? I do not believe it is for the interest of religion to invite the civil magistrate to direct it's exercises, it's discipline, or it's doctrines; nor of the religious societies that the general government should be invested with the power of effecting any uniformity of time or matter among them. Fasting & prayer are religious exercises. The enjoining them an act of discipline. Every religious society has a right to determine for itself the times for these exercises, & the objects proper for them, according to their own particular tenets; and this right can never be safer than in their own hands, where the constitution has deposited it." -- letter to Rev. Samuel Miller, 23 January 1808

"[T]he priests indeed have hertetofore thought proper to ascribe to me religious, or rather anti-religious sentiments, of their own fabric, but such as soothed their resentments against the act of Virginia for establishing religious freedom. They wished him to be thought atheist, deist, or devil who could advocate freedom from their religious dictations. But I have ever thought religion a concern purely between our God and our consciences, for which we were accountable to him, and not to the priests. I never told my own religion, nor scrutinized that of another. I never attempted to make a convert, nor wished to change another's creed. I have ever judged of the religion of others by their lives, and by this test, my dear Madam, I have been satisfied yours must be an excellent one, to have produced a life of such exemplary virtue and correctness. For it is in our lives, and not from our words, that that our religion must be read. By the same test the world must judge me. But this does not satisfy the priesthood. They must have a positive, a declared assent to all their interested absurdities. My opinion is that there would never have been an infidel, if there had never been a priest. The artificial structures they have built on the purest of all moral systems, for the purpose of deriving from it pence and power, revolts those who think for themselves, and who read in that system only what is really there. These, therefore, they brand with such nick-names as their enmity chooses gratuitously to impute." -- letter to Mrs. Samuel H. Smith, 6 August 1816

"Three of our papers have presented us the copy of an act of the legislature of New York, which, if it has really passed, will carry us back to the times of the darkest bigotry and barbarism, to find a parallel. Its purport is, that all those who shall hereafter join in communion with the religious sect of Shaking Quakers, shall be deemed civilly dead, their marriages dissolved, and all their children and property taken out of their hands. This act being published nakedly in the papers, without the usual signatures, or any history of the circumstances of its passage, I am not without a hope it may have been a mere abortive attempt. It contrasts singularly with a cotemporary vote of the Pennsylvania legislature, who, on a proposition to make the belief in God a necessary qualification for office, rejected it by a great majority, although assuredly there was not a single atheist in their body. And you remember to have heard, that when the act for religious freedom was before the Virginia Assembly, a motion to insert the name of Jesus Christ before the phrase, 'the author of our holy religion,' which stood in the bill, was rejected, although that was the creed of a great majority of them." -- letter to Albert Gallatin, 16 June 1817

". . . while this syllabus is meant to place the character of Jesus in its true and high light, as no impostor Himself, but a great Reformer of the Hebrew code of religion, it is not to be understood that I am with Him in all His doctrines. I am a Materialist; he takes the side of Spiritualism; he preaches the efficacy of repentance towards forgiveness of sin; I require counterpoise of good works to redeem it, etc., etc. It is the innocence of His character, the purity and sublimity of His moral precepts, the eloquence of His inculcations, the beauty of the apologues in which He conveys them, that I so much admire; sometimes, indeed, needing indulgence to eastern hyperbolism. My eulogies, too, may be founded on a postulate which all may not be ready to grant. Among the sayings and discourses imputed to Him by His biographers, I find many passages of fine imagination, correct morality, and of the most lovely benevolence; and others, again, of so much ignorance, so much absurdity, so much untruth, charlatanism and imposture, as to pronounce it impossible that such contradictions should have proceeded from the same Being. I separate, therefore, the gold from the dross; restore to Him the former, and leave the latter to the stupidity of some, and roguery of others of His disciples. Of this band of dupes and impostors, Paul was the great Coryphaeus, and first corruptor of the doctrines of Jesus. These palpable interpolations and falsifications of His doctrines, led me to try to sift them apart. I found the work obvious and easy, and that His past composed the most beautiful morsel of morality which has been given to us by man. The syllabus is therefore of His doctrines, not all of mine. I read them as I do those of other ancient and modern moralists, with a mixture of approbation and dissent. . . " -- letter to William Short, 13 April 1820

"I will make this a supplement to mine of April the 13th. My aim in that was, to justify the character of Jesus against the fictions of his pseudo-followers, which have exposed him to the inference of being an impostor. For if we could believe that he really countenanced the follies, the falsehoods and the charlatanisms which his biographers father on him, and admit the misconstructions, interpolations and theorizations of the fathers of the early, and fanatics of the latter ages, the conclusion would be irresistible by every sound mind, that he was an impostor. I give no credit to their falsifications of his actions and doctrines, and to rescue his character, the postulate in my letter asked only what is granted in reading every other historian. . . I say, that this free exercise of reason is all I ask for the vindication of the character of Jesus. We find in the writings of his biographers matter of two distinct descriptions. First, a groundwork of vulgar ignorance, of things impossible, of superstitions, fanaticisms and fabrications. Intermixed with these, again, are sublime ideas of the Supreme Being, aphorisms and precepts of the purest morality and benevolence, sanctioned by a life of humility, innocence and simplicity of manners, neglect of riches, absence of worldly ambition and honors, with an eloquence and persuasiveness which have not been surpassed. These could not be inventions of the groveling authors who relate them. They are far beyond the powers of their feeble minds. They shew that there was a character, the subject of their history, whose splendid conceptions were above all suspicion of being interpolations from their hands. Can we be at a loss in separating such materials, and ascribing each to its genuine author? The difference is obvious to the eye and to the understanding, and we may read as we run to each his part; and I will venture to affirm, that he who, as I have done, will undertake to winnow this grain from its chaff, will find it not to require a moment's consideration. The parts fall asunder of themselves, as would those of an image of metal and clay.
"There are, I acknowledge, passages not free from objection, which we may, with probability, ascribe to Jesus himself; but claiming indulgence from the circumstances under which he acted. His object was the reformation of some articles in the religion of the Jews, as taught by Moses. That sect had presented for the object of their worship, a being of terrific character, cruel, vindictive, capricious and unjust. Jesus, taking for his type the best qualities of the human head and heart, wisdom, justice, goodness, and adding to them power, ascribed all of these, but in infinite perfection, to the Supreme Being, and formed him really worthy of their adoration. Moses had either not believed in a future state of existence, or had not thought it essential to be explicitly taught to his people. Jesus inculcated that doctrine with emphasis and precision. Moses had bound the Jews to many idle ceremonies, mummeries and observances, of no effect towards producing the social utilities which constitute the essence of virtue; Jesus exposed their futility and insignificance. The one instilled into his people the most anti-social spirit towards other nations; the other preached philanthropy and universal charity and benevolence. The office of reformer of the superstitions of a nation, is ever dangerous. Jesus had to walk on the perilous confines of reason and religion: and a step to right or left might place him within the gripe of the priests of the superstition, a blood thirsty race, as cruel and remorseless as the being whom they represented as the family God of Abraham, of Isaac and of Jacob, and the local God of Israel. They were constantly laying snares, too, to entangle him in the web of the law. He was justifiable, therefore, in avoiding these by evasions, by sophisms, by misconstructions and misapplications of scraps of the prophets, and in defending himself with these their own weapons, as sufficient, ad homines, at least. That Jesus did not mean to impose himself on mankind as the son of God, physically speaking, I have been convinced by the writings of men more learned than myself in that lore. But that he might conscientiously believe himself inspired from above, is very possible. The whole religion of the Jews, inculcated on him from his infancy, was founded in the belief of divine inspiration. The fumes of the most disordered imaginations were recorded in their religious code, as special communications of the Deity; and as it could not but happen that, in the course of ages, events would now and then turn up to which some of these vague rhapsodies might be accommodated by the aid of allegories, figures, types, and other tricks upon words, they have not only preserved their credit with the Jews of all subsequent times, but are the foundation of much of the religions of those who have schismatised from them. Elevated by the enthusiasm of a warm and pure heart, conscious of the high strains of an eloquence which had not been taught him, he might readily mistake the coruscations of his own fine genius for inspirations of an higher order. This belief carried, therefore, no more personal imputation, than the belief of Socrates, that himself was under the care and admonitions of a guardian Dæmon. And how many of our wisest men still believe in the reality of these inspirations, while perfectly sane on all other subjects. Excusing, therefore, on these considerations, those passages in the gospels which seem to bear marks of weakness in Jesus, ascribing to him what alone is consistent with the great and pure character of which the same writings furnish proofs, and to their proper authors their own trivialities and imbecilities, I think myself authorised to conclude the purity and distinction of his character, in opposition to the impostures which those authors would fix upon him; and that the postulate of my former letter is no more than is granted in all other historical works." -- letter to William Short, 4 August 1820

"The bill for establishing religious freedom, the principles of which had, to a certain degree, been enacted before, I had drawn in all the latitude of reason and right. It still met with opposition; but, with some mutilations in the preamble, it was finally passed; and a singular proposition proved that its protection of opinion was meant to be universal. Where the preamble declares, that coercion is a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, an amendment was proposed, by inserting the word "Jesus Christ," so that it should read, "a departure from the plan of Jesus Christ, the holy author of our religion;" the insertion was rejected by a great majority, in proof that they meant to comprehend, within the mantle of its protection, the Jew and the Gentile, the Christian and Mahometan, the Hindoo, and Infidel of every denomination." -- Autobiography, 1821

"The truth is that the greatest enemies to the doctrines of Jesus are those calling themselves the expositors of them, who have perverted them for the structure of a system of fancy absolutely incomprehensible, and without any foundation in his genuine words. And the day will come when the mystical generation of Jesus, by the supreme being as father in the womb of a virgin will be classed with the fable of the generation of Minerva in the brain of Jupiter. But we may hope that the dawn of reason and freedom of thought in these United States will do away with all this artificial scaffolding, and restore us to the primitive and genuine doctrines of this the most venerated reformer of human errors." -- letter to John Adams, 11 April 1823

Misquotations: (Misattributions and false quotations of Jefferson are very numerous, so the list below is undoubtedly incomplete. If you know of any other incorrect religion-related Jefferson quotes, please let me know.)

"I have always said and always will say that the studious perusal of the Sacred Volume will make us better citizens." -- This quotation has not been found anywhere in Jefferson's recorded writings or speeches, as has been acknowledged by David Barton.

"I have recently been examining all the known superstitions of the world, and do not find in our particular superstition [Christianity] one redeeming feature. They are all alike founded on fables and mythology." (There are many variants of this one.) -- Sometimes attributed to a letter from Jefferson to a Dr. Wood. There is no record of any such statement in any of Jeffersons writings, nor of any correspondent named Dr. Wood. (See discussion at: Spurious Quotes (Monticello))

"Sir, no nation has ever yet existed or been governed without religion. Nor can be. The Christian religion is the best religion that has been given to man, and I as chief magistrate of this nation am bound to give it the sanction of my example." There is no record of any such statement in any of Jeffersons writings. (See discussion at: Spurious Quotes (Monticello))

"The Christian god can easily be pictured as virtually the same god as the many ancient gods of past civilizations. The Christian god is a three headed monster; cruel, vengeful and capricious. If one wishes to know more of this raging, three headed beast-like god, one only needs to look at the caliber of people who say they serve him. They are always of two classes: fools and hypocrites." -- Supposedly from a letter to Peter Carr. (See discussion at: Spurious Quotes (Monticello))

"The reason that Christianity is the best friend of Government is because Christianity is the only religion that changes the heart." There is no record of any such statement in any of Jeffersons writings. (See discussion at: Spurious Quotes (Monticello))

"the Bible is the source of liberty" There is no record of any such statement in any of Jeffersons writings. (See discussion at: Spurious Quotes (Monticello))

"Without God, liberty will not last." There is no record of any such statement in any of Jeffersons writings. (See discussion at: Spurious Quotes (Monticello))

"That government is best which governs least." -- This quotation has not been found anywhere in Jefferson's recorded writings or speeches. It first saw print in 1837, in the editor's introduction to the first issue of United States Magazine and Democratic Review, and Henry David Thoureau later used it, without attribution, in "On Civil Disobedience." (See the discussion in Paul F. Boller & John George, They Never Said It: A Book of Fake Quotes, Misquotes, and Misleading Attributions , Oxford Univ. Press, 1989, p. 56, and in Paul F. Boller, Not So!: Popular Myths About America From Columbus to Clinton , Oxford Univ. Press, 1995, pp. 49-51. Also see Spurious Quotes (Monticello))

"Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty." -- This quotation has not been found anywhere in Jefferson's recorded writings or speeches. (See the discussion in Paul F. Boller & John George, They Never Said It: A Book of Fake Quotes, Misquotes, and Misleading Attributions , Oxford Univ. Press, 1989, p. 56. Also see Spurious Quotes (Monticello))

References, Links, & Further Reading: Books, Articles, Links


Works By Thomas Jefferson

The Jefferson Bible: The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth, Wilder, 2009; Smithsonian Edition
ed. by Julian P. Boyd, John Catanzariti, et al., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 34 vols. to date, Princeton Univ. Press, 1950-
ed. by Joseph C. Cabell, Early history of the University of Virginia, J. W. Randolph, 1856;, reprint, Early History of the University of Virginia


Joyce Appleby, Thomas Jefferson: The 3rd President, 1801-1809 (The American Presidents), Times Books, 2003
R. B. Bernstein, Thomas Jefferson, Oxford Univ. Press, 2004
Daniel J. Boorstin, The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson, Beacon Press, 1948
Fawn Brodie, Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History, W W Norton & Co., 1974
Andrew Burstein, Jefferson's Secrets: Death and Desire at Monticello, Basic Books, 2005
Alan Pell Crawford, Twilight at Monticello: The Final Years of Thomas Jefferson, Random House, 2008
Noble E. Cunningham, In Pursuit of Reason: The Life of Thomas Jefferson, LouisianaState Univ.Press, 1987
Virginius Dabney, The Jefferson Scandals: A Rebuttal, Dodd, Mead, 1981
Edward Ellis, Life of Thomas Jefferson (also available at Project Gutenberg), Laird & Lee, 1913; reprint, Thomas Jefferson
Joseph J. Ellis, American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson, Knopf, 1996
Annette Gordon-Reed, Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy, Univ. of Virginia Press, 1998
E. M. Halliday, Understanding Thomas Jefferson, HarperCollins, 2001
Christopher Hitchens, Thomas Jefferson: Author of America, Eminent Lives, 2005
Leonard W. Levy, Jefferson and Civil Liberties: The Darker Side, Belknap Press 1963
Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, 6 vols., Little, Brown, Co., 1948-1981
Forrest McDonald, The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson, Univ. Press of Kansas, 1976
J. McLauglin, Jefferson and Monticello: The Biography of a Builder, Holt, 1988
Richard K. Matthews, The Radical Politics of Thomas Jefferson: A Revisionist View, Univ. Press of Kansas, 1984
David Mayer, The Constitutional Thought of Thomas Jefferson (Constitutionalism and Democracy), Univ. of Virginia Press, 1984
Bernard Mayo, Thomas Jefferson and His Unknown Brother, Univ. of Virginia Press, 1981
Jon Meacham, Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power, Random House, 2012
John C. Miller, The Wolf by the Ears: Thomas Jefferson and Slavery, Free Press, 1977
John C. Miller, Jefferson and Nature: An Interpretation, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988
Merrill D. Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (Galaxy Books) Oxford University Press, 1970
Hamilton W. Pierson, Jefferson at Monticello: The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson, C. Scribner, 1862
Sarah N. Randolph, The Domestic Life of Thomas Jefferson, Harper & Brothers, 1871; reprint, The Domestic Life of Thomas Jefferson
B. L. Rayner, Life of Thomas Jefferson, Lilly, Wait, Colman, & Holden, 1834; reprint
Norman K. Risjord, Thomas Jefferson (American Profiles), Madison House, 1994
Samuel M. Schmucker, The Life and Times of Thomas Jefferson, J. E. Potter, 1857; reprint, The life and times of Thomas Jefferson
Bernard W. Sheehan, Seeds of Extinction: Jeffersonian Philanthropy and the American Indian, Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1973
Garrett Ward Sheldon, The Political Philosophy of Thomas Jefferson (The Political Philosophy of the American Founders), The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1991
Burton Spivack, Jefferson's English Crisis: Commerce, Embargo and the Republican Revolution , Univ. of Virginia Press, 1979
Robert W. Tucker, Empire of Liberty: The Statecraft of Thomas Jefferson, Oxford Univ. Press, 1990
Henry Wieneck, Master of the Mountain: Thomas Jefferson and His Slaves, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012
Garry Wills, Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence, Doubleday, 1978
Jean M. Yarbrough, American Virtues: Thomas Jefferson on the Character of a Free People (American Political Thought) Univ. Press of Kansas, 1998
Joanne L . Yeck, The Jefferson Brothers Unknown, 2012

Religious Views

Edwin S. Gaustad, Sworn on the Altar of God: A Religious Biography of Thomas Jefferson, Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2001
Charles B. Sanford, Religious Life of Thomas Jefferson, Univ. Press of Virginia, 1984
Eugene R. Sheridan, Jefferson and Religion (Monticello Monograph Series), Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1998
Denise Spellberg, Thomas Jefferson's Qur'an: Islam and the Founders, Vintage, 2014


Articles About Thomas Jefferson -- list of articles available online


Works By Thomas Jefferson -- General

Thomas Jefferson Papers (Library of Congress)
Texts by or to Thomas Jefferson (University of Virginia Library)
The Papers of Thomas Jefferson (Avalon Project -- Yale Law School)
The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (Constitution Society)
The Works ofThomas Jefferson (The Online Library of Liberty)
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) -- selected speeches & writings (Hypertext on American History)
Letters, Tracts, & Essays of the Founders: Thomas Jefferson (Founders Library -- founding.com)
Thomas Jefferson: Documents (PBS)
Works of Thomas Jefferson (Liberty Online)
Thomas Jefferson: Selected Works (Humanities Web)
Document Library (TeachingAmericanHistory.org)
Thomas Jefferson: Selected Works: Historic Speeches (Presidential Rhetoric)
First Inaugural Address (The Avalon Project -- Yale Law School)
First Inaugural Address (AMDOCS)
Second Inaugural Address (The Avalon Project -- Yale Law School)
Second Inaugural Address (AMDOCS)
Thomas Jefferson's Autobiography (Bibliomania)

Works By Thomas Jefferson -- Quotations

Thomas Jefferson (Bartlett's Familiar Quotations)
Thomas Jefferson on Politics and Government -- quotations (University of Virginia Library)
Quotations (Monticello)

Works By Thomas Jefferson -- Religion

The Jefferson Bible
An Act for Establishing Religious Freedom (Colonial Williamsburg)
A Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom
Thomas Jefferson (Secular Web Library)
Letter to the Danbury Baptist Association

Biographical Sites

Thomas Jefferson [alternate site] (POTUS)
Thomas Jefferson (White House)
JEFFERSON, Thomas, 1743-1826 (Biographical Directory of the US Congress)
Thomas Jefferson (USA Presidents)
Thomas Jefferson (American President)
Thomas Jefferson (1797-1801) (Vice Presidents of the United States -- U.S. Senate)
Biography of Thomas Jefferson (Hypertext on American History)
Thomas Jefferson: The Architect of a Nation (Capitol Project -- University of Virginia)
Thomas Jefferson (Colonial Williamsburg)
Thomas Jefferson (ushistory.org: Signers of the Declaration of Independence)
Thomas Jefferson (PBS)
Thomas Jefferson (Colonial Hall)
Thomas Jefferson (Signers of the Declaration of Independence -- National Park Service)
Life Portrait of Thomas Jefferson (C-SPAN)
Writing the Declaration of Independence, 1776 (Eye Witness)
Thomas Jefferson and the Practice of Law (EncyclopediaVirginia)
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) (PAL: Perspectives in American Literature)
Thomas Jefferson and Books (EncyclopediaVirginia)
Thomas Jefferson (Dictionary of Unitarian & Universalist Biography)
Objectivism and Thomas Jefferson
Mr. Jefferson's Music (Baroque Music)
Report of the Research Committee on Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings (Monticello)
Thomas Jefferson (Medical History of the Presidents of the United States)
Thomas Jefferson (GreatBuildings.com)
The Architecture of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson and Gardening (EncyclopediaVirginia)

Religious Views

Jefferson's Religious Beliefs (Monticello)
Thomas Jefferson and Religion (EncyclopediaVirginia)
Six Historic Americans: Thomas Jefferson (Internet Infidels)
Thomas Jefferson on Separation of Church and State (Separation of Church and State)

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